Instrumentation of Department of Low-dimensional Systems

A: Major Equipment

Nanocarbon laboratory
1) Raman spectrometer LabRAM HR, HORIBA Jobin-Yvon
- 11 excitation wavelengths: 457, 476, 488, 514, 531, 568, 633, 647, 785, 830, 1064 nm, available gratings: 300, 600, 1200, 1800 l/mm
- Olympus BX microscope, 50x and 100x vis LWD lenses, 50x IR LWD lens
- Manual / motorized XY stages, manual / piezo Z axis, Piezo XYZ stage (PI 730.3CD)
- Peltier-cooled CCD / liquid nitrogen cooled InGaAs detector for IR range
- Linkam heating stage (RT to 1500 °C)
- Diamond-anvil cell
- Electrochemical cell(s) for in-situ spectroelectrochemical measurements; controlled by µAutolab (Ecochemie/Metrohm)
- Cantilever beam bending apparatus for in-situ spectromechanical studies

2) Raman spectrometer WITec alpha300 R
- 532 and 633 nm excitation wavelength, available gratings: 600, 1200, 1800 l/mm
- Confocal microscope, 50x and 100x vis LWD lenses, 50x SWD lens
- Piezo XYZ stage (200x200x20 μm)
- Peltier-cooled EMCCD

3) Attocube insert for low temperature Raman spectroscopy
- enables to measure Raman in cryostat, in low temperatures and in magnetic field
- insert with piezo stage, optical head for filter/polarizers mounting

4) Clean room laboratory for optical lithography
- Spin coater (LabSpin6, Süss), hotplate (Delta HP, Süss), mask aligner (MJB4, Süss)
- Oxygen plasma etcher (Pico, Diener)
- Dual target sputtering machine (Q300TD, Quorum Technologies)

5) Chemical vapour deposition (CVD) apparatus for graphene growth
- High temperature CVD tube furnace
- Multiple channel gas controller

6) Electronics laboratory
- Keithley 4200-SCS with 4 SMUs and 4 CVUs
- Keithley 2400, Keithley 2612B, Keithley 3390, 2x Agilent 34401A, Agilent 34970A, Agilent DSO-X 2022A, Metex MS-9170, Hioki IM 3533-01 LCR meter

Advanced Photoelectron Spectroscopy Laboratory
7) Combined ultrahigh vacuum apparatus for complex study of thin films, interfaces and surface nanostructures (SPECSR) encompassing:
- X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) with microfocused (200 m) monochromatic X-ray source (hʋ=1486.6 eV),
- ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy with excitation of electrons by monochromatized He I (21.2 eV) and He II (40.8 eV) radiation, 
- hemispherical electron energy analyzer with-two-dimensional electron and ion detector and sample manipulator allowing measurement of high resolution spectra from room temperature down to liquid Helium temperature at different polar and azimutal detection angles, band structure mapping by ARPES technique using scanning angle lens are possible, 
- low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) technique for the determination of the surface structure and accurate surface atomic positions of materials by their interaction with a collimated beam of low energy electrons 
- ion gun for cleaning of surfaces

8) Temperature programmed desorption apparatus (TPD) equipped with a quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS 200 M1, Prisma, Pfeiffer, Austria, 1-100 AMU) with a differentially pumped shield. The computer-multiplexed mass spectrometer allowing up to 12 masses to be monitored simultaneously.

9) Photoelectron spectrometer with achromatic X-ray Al Kα source, UV source, electron gun and ion gun (0.2-10 keV) for surface analysis based on in-house modified ESCA system (VG).

10) Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser Nano S60-30 (Litron Lasers), 1064 nm (94 mJ), 532 nm (51 mJ), pulse width 10 ns, beam diameter 4 mm.

11) Differential Electrochemical Mass Spectrometry (DEMS) apparatus 
- Prisma quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS200, Balzers) connected with turbomolecular drag pump station (TSU071, Balzers) 
- Potentiostat/galvanostat EG&G Instruments Model 263A

12) Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) - Hitachi S4800
- Accelerating voltage: 500 V - 30 kV
- Extracting voltage: 0-6.5 kV
- 3-stage electromagnetic lens, reduction type
- Max. Magnification: 800,000x
- Installed additional detectors: EDX Detector NanoTrace(TM) Noran System Six 200 (Thermo Scientific) and EBSD Detector H1-311 NORDLYS II D (Oxford Intruments)

13) Powder X Ray Diffractometer - Rigaku Miniflex 600
- Non-monochromatized CuKα radiation, focus size 1x10 mm
- Tube output voltage 20-40 kV, tube output current 2-15 mA
- Minimum step angle 0.005° (2)

14) Freeze dryer (FreeZone Triad Freeze Dry System 7400030, Labconco)
- Cooling temperature up to -85°C
15) Microwave Digestion System with built-in non-contact temperature and pressure measurement (Speed Wave Four, Berghof)
- Magnetron frequency: 2450 MHz, Microwave powe: 1450 W
- Digestion at temperatures <230°C, pressures up to max. of 100 bar.

B: Available Methods

1) Raman spectroscopy
- Spatial Raman mapping
- Spectroelectrochemical and spectromechanical measurements
- Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)

2) Growth and functionalization of graphene
- Synthesis of CVD grown graphene (possibility of 13C isotope) and its transfer onto another substrate
- Fluorination of graphene in a home built fluorination line using XeF2
- Hydrogenation of graphene in a high pressure autoclave 
- Chemical synthesis (organic, inorganic), graphene functionalization, surface functionalization, polymer chemistry

3) Patterning of graphene and preparation of metal contacts in multiple-step processes by optical lithography

4) Electronic properties measurements of materials
- Probe systems with micromanipulators for I-V and C-V characterization
- Gas-flow controllers and mixing units
- Gas and microfluidic cells for sensor characterization

5) High resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of solids

6) Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) of solid surfaces and thin films

7) Band structure mapping of solid surfaces and thin films by angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (ARPES)

8) Temperature programmed desorption technique (TPD)

9) Low-energy electron diffraction (LEED)

10) Pulsed laser deposition in gases and liquids (PLD)

11) Methods for nanomaterials synthesis:
- spray freezing-freeze drying approach, microwave assisted hydrothermal synthesis, solvothermal method, solid-state approach

12) Methods for electrochemical characterization:
-Besides conventional voltammetry techniques, RRDE, FRA, Electrochemical Quartz Crystal Microbalance (EQCM)( 8712ET RF Network Analyzer, Agilent Technologies)

13) Methods for structure and morphology characterization:
X-ray diffraction, Scanning electron microscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Electron backscatter diffraction

C: Auxiliary equipment

1) Thermal evaporator of metals, Oxford Instruments

2) Thermogravimeter STA449F1 (Netzsch) connected with Mass Spectrometer (Anamet)
- enables to measure both thermogravimetry and differential scanning calorimetry
- oxygen and inert atmosophere available

3) Fluorescence spectrometer Fluorolog 3, HORIBA Jobin-Yvon
- Excitation: Xenon lamp / KOHERAS Supercontinuum Laser
- Three detectors for UV-Vis, near IR, middle IR
- Inverted Olympus BX microscope

4) Organic evaporator
- Switchable two-crucible effusion cell Dr. Eberl MBE-Komponenten
- Pfeifer HiPace 80 turbomolecular pump (~10-7 mbar)
- Inficon XTC/3 Thin Film Deposition Controller, 2"-Wafer Ta Heater

5) Chemical laboratory
- Automated reactor Donau Lab EC UR 200, Karl-Fisher coulometer, melting point aparatus, rotary evaporator, vacuum and high-pressure vessel

5) See System (Advex Instruments, Czech Republic) for contact angle measurement and surface energy determination
- Both static (sessile drop technique) and dynamic mode of measurement can be performed using syringe pump (New Era Pump System, Inc., USA)

6) Potentiostats
-PGSTAT 30, Metrohm Autolab and Solartron 1286Model

7) Different types of furnaces 
- Tube furnace (Nabertherm), temperatures: 30 -3000°C, muffle furnace, humididty controlled furnace)

8) Laboratory centrifuge (ZP3, Chirana)

9) Laboratory oven (UM100, Memmert)

10) Hydraulic press (H-62, Trystom, Olomouc)

11) Ultrasonic Compact Cleaner (Teson 4, Tesla)


Department of Low-dimensional Systems

Deputy Head