Role of Localized Defects in 2D Materials: From Nanoscale Structure to Macroscale Properties
Structural defects are an integral part of two-dimensional (2D) materials and they play one of the most decisive roles in their properties. Depending on the type, position, and concentration, defects influence almost every characteristic of the 2D material spanning from nano- to macroscale. Presently, there is a substantial gap between the basic characterization of the defects by means of ultra-high vacuum methods and the determination of the structure-property relationship through non-localized laboratory techniques, particularly for less studied 2D materials. We propose to bridge this gap through the synergetic collaboration of three teams with state-of-the-art expertise and facilities. The combination of controlled creation of defects and the nanoscale resolution of our local optoelectronic characterization techniques in the ambient environment, with the unique localized microscale spectroelectrochemical and large area spectroscopic techniques and conductivity measurements, will facilitate unprecedented insight into this scale-bridging structure-property relationship.