I did my doctoral work in the University of Cambridge, England and settled in Czechoslovakia after marrying my Cambridge colleague, Dr. M. Heyrovsky in 1968. I was a private research scientist, while raising our four children, in my postdoctoral years (1969-1990!). During this period, I did publish my work and participate in various international conferences. In 1990, I was employed as a Senior Research Scientist in the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague and since 2013, am an Emeritus private research scientist. I am a long time Active Member of the Electrochemical Society, USA and have served as an Executive Committee Member and Councillor of its European Local Section. I am a Member of the American Chemical Society (ACS) and also of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). In 2002 I was elected as an invited Fellow of the World Innovation Foundation (F.W.I.F.). It was also a great honor for me to be an invited team leader of Czech women physicists in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd IUPAP International confereneces on women in physics in 2002 (Paris, France), 2005 (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) and 2008 (Seoul, Korea). My name has appeared in the Marquis' Who is Who. In 2006, I became a nominated Member of the International Advisory Board (IAB) of Eurasia Conferences in Chemical Sciences. I have made so far about 200 published scientific contributions.
main research field of mine has been the successful
interpretation of the thermodynamic properties of strong
electrolytes in aqueous solutions in terms of the earlier
idea of partial dissociation due to Svante
Arrhenius and hydration. This
work replaces the many decades of the complicated theory of
electrolytes based (erroneously) on complete dissociation and
empirical activity coefficient corrections suggested by Lewis
(since 1921). Through this work, the theory of ionic association
due to Bjerrum also got a renewed appreciation: it can be used
to calculate the mean distance of closest approach of ions in
the solution. In the references below, Tables of data on the
actual degrees of dissociation and hydration numbers of
aqueous strong electrolytes, have been provided, which can
be used for thermodynamic calculations. Thus, there is no
need anymore for the empirical "activity or osmotic
coefficients", which are "correction factors"
evaluated based on the assumption of complete dissociation. References: J.
Electrochem Soc., vol.143, 1789, 1996: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/234893293,
Electroanalysis, vol. 18, 351,
and Struct. Chem. vol. 24, 895, 2013:
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/257666226. The collected work can be found
and is summarized in the ECS conference talk: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305082740
In the year 1992, I invented a ‘wet-and-measure
device in polarography for minute volumes of
solutions’. References: Journal of Electrochemical Society, 139
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/278973898. In 1993, I extended this
technique and published ‘the current-spike polarography
for films and surfaces’. References:
Langmuir, 9 (1993) 1962, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/244404843.
I also proposed
the rest mass based neutron numbers for the elements of
the Periodic Table. References::
Journal of Chemical Education, 69
(1992) 742, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/231262226
Subsequently, in 2004, I found that the Golden ratio found in the geometry of many spontaneous creations in the Nature, actually arises right in the core of atoms due to electrostatic reasons. This new work shows that the energy of the hydrogen atom is actually positive (not negative as per Bohr). It has helped in the assignment of exact ionic radii from a knowledge of the interatomic distances in molecules, and in the interpretation of the lengths of the hydrogen bonds. I have shown the additivity of atomic and or ionic radii in bond lengths and have established the structures at the atomic level of many simple as well as complex inorganic, organic and biological molecules. I published some basic papers on the Golden ratio in the theory of the hydrogen atom and in assigning ionic radii, additivity of atomic radii in bond lengths and in hydration bonds of ions with the oxygen and hydrogen of water and in the lengths of the hydrogen bonds in inorganic and biochemical groups. Also, I have found that atomic, ionic and Bohr radii (from first ionization potentials) of elements, and bond lengths and bond angles of molecules are related through the Golden ratio. References: Molecular Physics, vol. 103, 877, 2005: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233608127; Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 429, 600, 2006: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/239161228; vol. 432, 348, 2006: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/244136232 ; and vol. 436, 287, 2007: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/244136426; The Open Structural Biology Journal, vol. 2, 1, 2008: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242360521; in "Innovations in Chemical Biology", Ed: B. Sener, Springer, 2009, ch. 12; http://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V2-201303-019.pdf, http://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V2-201304-08.pdf and http://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V2-201304-18.pdf . A collected work is in http://vixra.org/abs/1709.0066 ; http://vixra.org/pdf/1709.0066v1.pdf and a conference talk in: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281270357.
Another contribution of mine is obtaining
unambiguously, for the first time, the absolute
potential of the standard hydrogen electrode (which
was arbitrarily assumed to be zero for the last two centuries
since Volta). Thereby, the absolute standard redox
potentials of the elements of the Periodic Table have
now been tabulated. References:
Electrochem. Solid-State Letters, vol 12, 2009, F29-30: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/239259246;
Electrochem. Soc. Trans, vol. 25, 159, 2010: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/285259290;
Electroanalysis, vol 22, 903, 2010: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230315387
and collected work in: http://www.vixra.org/abs/1603.0168;
Other fundamental new interesting results in physical chemistry, electrochemistry, solution chemistry, physics and structural chemistry/biology can be found in my full list of publications and significant results. Several full texts are available in arxiv.org., Nature Precedings, Researchgate.net, vixra.org, etc.
The foundation for my above interests in science was built upon my studies for the B.Sc. degree (major subjects: Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics) from Maharani's College for Women, Bangalore, University of Mysore (India); (now Maharani's Science College for Women, University of Bangalore), M.Sc. degree (by research) in Physical Chemistry from the Indian Institute of Science (I.I.Sc.), Bangalore (India). I was awarded free studentships and scholarships for all my undergraduate and post graduate studies. After a few years as a Junior and then a Senior Research Assistant at the I.I.Sc., I got an award from the Association of Commonwealth Universities, which enabled me to get my Ph.D. degree (by research) in Physical Chemistry from the University of Cambridge, UK.
My thesis for the Ph.D. degree was on the thermogravitational separation in solutions of electrolytes (now open access at: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/270413 ; https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.17287). It is this topic which provoked me to scrutinize the theory of strong electrolytes. I was dissatisfied with the complicated theory like several others and I eventually came to the conclusion that the existing idea of complete dissociation had to be abandoned in favor of the earlier idea of partial dissociation due to ARRHENIUS. During the twenty years after my Ph. D., I found gradually that the equilibrium properties of solutions can be quantitatively explained by simple and meaningful mathematical expressions involving hydration numbers and concentrations and sizes of ions and ion-pairs in the solution.This has been stated in the second para above.
It was a great honor for me that my above work on the thermodynamics of aqueous strong electrolytes was recoginzed by the award of an Invitation Plenary Lecturership by the Organizing Committee of the "Symposium Svante Arrhenius" in Uppsala, in November 2003, commemorating the Centenary of the award of the Nobel Prize to Arrhenius. The full text of this Lecture is at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320021014, and with additional data in Electroanalysis, 2006. In 2011, it was an honor to be be invited by the Women Chemists Committee of the ACS for a Symposium featuring seven successful women scientists (http://www.chemistry2011.org/participate/activities/show?id=153) on the occasion of IYC 2011 celebration by the ACS in 2011. The full text of my talk with audio (with 4 of my notable scientific contributions is in the ACS website at: http://www.softconference.com/ACSchem/player.asp?PVQ=HGFE&fVQ=FIDDGM&hVQ. Most recently in June-July 2014, it was an honor to give a Keyrnote talk entitled "The Golden ratio in atomic architecture" in the Shechtman International Sumposium in Cancun: http://www.flogen.org/ShechtmanSymposium/plenary_abst.php?page=2&p=Raji_Heyrovskafirstname.lastname@example.org&pi=124. Also, I was honored that my talk in the ECS conference in 2016 in San Diego, was attended by the grandson (Prof. Gustaf Arrhenius) and great grandson (Dr. Thomas Arrhenius) of Svante Arrhenius, https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305082740. It was also a great honor for me to be an invited team leader of Czech Women Physicists in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd IUPAP International conferences on Women in Physics in 2002 (Paris, France), 2005 (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) and 2008 (Seoul, Korea).
Personally, I consider myself very fortunate to be a scientist and I have always enjoyed both experimental and theoretical research. I feel that physico-chemical phenomena follow simple mathematical rules and therefore only as much mathematics must be used as to bring out the science governing the phenomena (- Occam's rule!). I would like also to add that if one has the talent to grasp the principles of science and mathematics, it will be a pity not to cultivate this unique gift to explore the many dark corridors in science and understand the workings of Nature. In this venture one has to take both failure and success with equal spirit, since the former contributes by showing the path to avoid. Also, I would like to point out the hurdles which one has to conquer in getting new and original ideas published.
For all what I have done so far, I am
grateful to the many in
India (especially to the dedicated scientist, my late
P. R. Ayyar, Research Professor of Chemistry, I.I.Sc.,
Bangalore and to his cousin, Sir C.V. Raman, for his brilliant
lectures), in Cambridge
(UK) and in other places in the world which I have visited, who
enabled me to cultivate the desire and enjoyment of working in
Science. I am equally obliged to some scientists here (in Czech
Republic) for giving me the moral support. Turning to my family, I
am very fortunate to have had their loving encouragement.
My special gratitude is also due to the many scientists in the world who have supported, appreciated and criticized my ideas during my several journeys abroad to many countries (USA, Canada, UK, Europe, Japan and Asia) for lectures at conferences, and seminars and talks at other Institutions: (IISC (Bangalore, India), Univ. of Pisa (Italy), Univ of Utrecht (Netherlands), Univ. of Pierre & Marie Curie (Paris), Johns Hopkins Univ., UMBC, Towson Univ, and Stevenson Univ. (all in Baltimore), NIST (Gaithersberg), MIT and Harvard Univ. (Cambridge, MA), Tufts Univ (Medford, MA), Univ. of Waterloo (Waterloo, Canada), Chemical Heritage Foundation (Philadelphia), Sofia Univ. and Univ of Kyoto (Japan), Univs.of Regensburg, Aachen and Dresden, Hahn Meittner Inst., Berlin (all in Germany), Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden), and a few others.
have enjoyed traveling and exploring many countries from Tokyo
(130.7 E) to Pearl Harbor (157.8 W) and Spitzbergen (80.02 N) to
Rio deJaneiro (22.9 S). Notably exotic amongst them was a trip
which I undertook to Spitzbergen after seeing the fascinating
paintings and photos of the arctic scenery in the Scott Polar
Research Institute (http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/),
Cambridge. It was a 20-day trip by boat from England (in August
1967, ) to the land of the
midnight Sun, Spitzbergen: (by 'Jupiter' from Newcastle
at 55oN to Bergen at 60oN and back) along
the Norwegian coast (by 'Nordstjernen' from Bergen to Tromso at 69oN
and back from Tromso to Bergen by 'Ragnvaldjarl', from Tromso to
Spitzbergen (~ 76oN - 81oN and back (by a
small postal school boat: 'Skule' which went once a month),
stopping at Bjornoya (at ~ 74.5oN), and reaching upto 80.2oN (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Topographic_map_of_Svalbard.svg)
in open sea above the northern tip in Spitzbergen. I visited (in
Norway) the many picturesque coastal towns and the Lofotens and
(in Spitzbergen) Longyear Byen (capital at ~78oN; after
disembarking from the boat I saw coming in front of us, the famous
polar bear hunter, Hilmar Nois!), Ny Alesund (at 79oN,
Amundsen and others' base for their expedition to the North Pole),
Kongs fjord, Lilliehook fjord, Virgohamn, (Andre's base at ~79.8oN,
for the balloon expedition in 1896/1897 to the North Pole, with Svante Arrhenius as the
hydrogarpher) and many other interesting fjords, lakes, bird
cliffs and glaciers. This trip turned out to be more adventurous
by my losing at Tromso, before embarking 'Skule', my baggage with
all my equipment, except my handbag with my cheque book etc. and
my camera, and learning later by a telegram for me received at the
World's northernmost postoffice at Ny Alesund that the suitcase
will be waiting for me at Tromso on my return journey!
Last but not least I would like to add that I support vegetarianism, education of all people including women, human and animal rights and peaceful & friendly coexistence of all living beings in the World.* AN ABRIDGED CV (Dr. R. Heyrovska) is at: http://www.flogen.org/sips2015/cv.php?page=2&p=Raji_Heyrovskaemail@example.com&pi=308