Dr. Rajalakshmi Heyrovska (Raji Heyrovska, Ph. D.) (Short biodata / C.V.)
(Abridged CV at the end below*)

    I have been a Senior Research Scientist in the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague and a private research scientist. I am an Active Member of the Electrochemical Society, USA and have served as an Executive Committee Member and Councillor of its European Local Section. I am a Member of the American Chemical Society (ACS) and also of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). In 2002 I was elected as an invited Fellow of the World Innovation Foundation (F.W.I.F.). It was also a great honor for me to be an invited team leader of Czech women physicists in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd IUPAP International confereneces on women in physics in 2002 (Paris, France), 2005 (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) and 2008 (Seoul, Korea). My name has appeared in the Marquis' Who is Who. In 2006, I became a nominated Member of the International Advisory Board (IAB) of Eurasia Conferences in Chemical Sciences.

    A main research field of mine has been the successful interpretation of the thermodynamic properties of strong electrolytes in aqueous solutions in terms of the earlier idea of partial dissociation due to Svante Arrhenius and hydration (see: J. Electrochem Soc., vol.143, 1789, 1996 and Electroanalysis, vol. 18, 351, 2006). A proper understanding of the solution properties of strong electrolytes is important since they play important roles in many physico-chemical, electrochemical, biological, physiological, environmental, industrial and atmospheric processes.
    Recently, I have found that the Golden ratio found in the geometry of many spontaneous creations in the Nature, actually arises right in the core of atoms due to electrostatic reasons. It plays a direct role in the assignment of exact ionic radii from a knowledge of the interatomic distances in molecules, and in the interpretation of the lengths of the hydrogen bonds. The additivity of atomic and or ionic radii in bond lengths has helped to establish the structures at the atomic level of many simple as well as complex inorganic, organic and biological molecules. Some basic papers of mine on the Golden ratio in the theory of the hydrogen atom and in assigning ionic radii, additivity of atomic radii in bond lengths and in hydration bonds of ions with the oxygen and hydrogen of water and in the lengths of the hydrogen bonds in inorganic and biochemical groups, have been published in Molecular Physics, vol. 103, 877, 2005, Chemical Physics Letters, vol. 429, 600, 2006; vol. 432, 348, 2006 and vol. 436, 287, 2007, The Open Structural Biology Journal, vol. 2, 1, 2008 and in "Innovations in Chemical Biology", Ed: B. Sener, Springer, 2009, ch. 12. Most recently, I have found that atomic, ionic and Bohr radii (from first ionization potentials), bond lengths and bond angles of elements are related through the Golden ratio, see: http://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V2-201303-019.pdf, http://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V2-201304-08.pdf and http://www.ijsciences.com/pub/pdf/V2-201304-18.pdf

    I have also obtained unambigously, for the first time, the absolute potential of the standard hydrogen electrode (which was arbitrarily assumed to be zero for the last 2 centuries). Thereby, the absolute standard redox potentials of the elements of the Periodic Table could now be tabulated (See Electrochem. Solid-State Letters, vol 12, 2009, F29-30; Electrochem. Soc. Trans, vol. 25, 159, 2010, Electroanalysis, vol 22, 903, 2010).

   Other fundamental new interesting results in physical chemistry, electrochemistry, solution chemistry, physics and structural chemistry/biology can be found in my full list of publications and significant results. Several full texts are available in arxiv.org. and Nature Precedings.

    The foundation for my above interests in science was built upon my studies for the B.Sc. degree (major subjects: Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics) from Maharani's College for Women, Bangalore, University of Mysore (India); (now Maharani's Science College for Women, University of Bangalore), M.Sc. degree (by research) in Physical Chemistry from the Indian Institute of Science (I.I.Sc.), Bangalore (India). After a few years as a Junior and then a Senior Research Assistant at the I.I.Sc., I got an award from the Association of Commonwealth Universities, which enabled me to get my Ph.D. degree (by research) in Physical Chemistry from the University of Cambridge, UK.

    My thesis for the Ph.D. degree was on the thermogravitational separation in solutions of electrolytes. It is this topic which provoked me to scrutinize the theory of strong electrolytes. I was dissatisfied with the complicated theory like several others and I eventually came to the conclusion that the existing idea of complete dissociation had to be abandoned in favor of the earlier idea of partial dissociation due to ARRHENIUS. During the twenty years after my Ph. D., I found gradually that the equilibrium properties of solutions can be quantitatively explained by simple and meaningful mathematical expressions involving hydration numbers and concentrations and sizes of ions and ion-pairs in the solution. The basic paper on the typical strong electrolyte, NaCl in aqueous solutions from "zero to saturation" was published in the J. Electrochemical Society in June 1996 and further complete work in Electroanalysis, 2006 and all relevant publications are in the full list. Through this work, the theory of ionic association due to Bjerrum also got a renewed appreciation: it can be used to calculate the mean distance of closest approach of ions in the solution. My webpage, Croatica Chem. Acta, 1997, Chem Listy, 1998 and Electroanalyis, 2006 contain many Tables of data on the actual degrees of dissociation and hydration numbers of aqueous strong electrolytes, which can be used for thermodynamic calculations. Thus, there is no need anymore for "acitvity or osmotic coefficients", which are "correction factors" evaluated based on the assumption of complete dissociation.

    It was a great honor for me that my above work on the thermodynamics of aqueous strong electrolytes was recoginzed by the award of an Invitation Plenary Lecturership by the Organizing Committee of the "Symposium Svante Arrhenius" in Uppsala, in November 2003, commemorating the Centenary of the award of the Nobel Prize to Arrhenius. The full text of this Lecture is in this webpage, and with additional data in Electroanalysis, 2006.  In 2011, it was an honor to be be invited by the Women Chemists Committee of the ACS for a Symposium featuring seven successful women scientists (http://www.chemistry2011.org/participate/activities/show?id=153) on the occasion of IYC 2011 celebration by the ACS in 2011. The full text of my talk with audio (with 4 of my notable scientific contributions is in the ACS website at: http://www.softconference.com/ACSchem/player.asp?PVQ=HGFE&fVQ=FIDDGM&hVQ. Most recently in June-July 2014, it was an honor to give a Keyrnote talk entitled "The Golden ratio in atomic architecture" in the Shechtman International Sumposium in Cancun: http://www.flogen.org/ShechtmanSymposium/plenary_abst.php?page=2&p=Raji_Heyrovska&e=rheyrovs@hotmail.com&pi=124

    Personally, I consider myself very fortunate to be a scientist and I have always enjoyed both experimental and theoretical research. I feel that physico-chemical phenomena follow simple mathematical rules and therefore only as much mathematics must be used as to bring out the science governing the phenomena (- Occam's rule!). I would like also to add that if one has the talent to grasp the principles of science and mathematics, it will be a pity not to cultivate this unique gift to explore the many dark corridors in science and understand the workings of Nature. In this venture one has to take both failure and success with equal spirit, since the former contributes by showing the path to avoid.

    For all what I have done so far, I am grateful to the many in India (especially to the dedicated scientist, my late grandfather Prof. P. R. Ayyar, Research Professor of Chemistry, I.I.Sc., Bangalore and to his cousin, Sir C.V. Raman, for his brilliant lectures), in Cambridge (UK) and in other places in the world which I have visited, who enabled me to cultivate the desire and enjoyment of working in Science. I am equally obliged to some scientists here (in Czech Republic) for giving me the moral support. Turning to my family, I am very fortunate to have had their loving encouragement.

   My special gratitude is also due to the many scientists in the world who have supported, appreciated and criticized my ideas during my several journeys abroad to many countries (USA, Canada, UK, Europe, Japan and Asia) for lectures at conferences, and seminars and talks at other Institutions: (IISC (Bangalore, India), Univ. of Pisa (Italy), Univ of Utrecht (Netherlands), Univ. of Pierre & Marie Curie (Paris), Johns Hopkins Univ., UMBC, Towson Univ, and Stevenson Univ. (all in Baltimore), NIST (Gaithersberg), MIT and Harvard Univ. (Cambridge, MA), Tufts Univ (Medford, MA), Univ. of Waterloo (Waterloo, Canada), Chemical Heritage Foundation (Philadelphia), Sofia Univ. and Univ of Kyoto (Japan), Univs.of Regensburg, Aachen and Dresden, Hahn Meittner Inst., Berlin (all in Germany), Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden), and a few others.

   I have enjoyed traveling and exploring many countries from Tokyo (130.7 E) to Pearl Harbor (157.8 W) and Spitzbergen (80.02 N) to Rio deJaneiro (22.9 S). Notably exotic amongst them was a trip which I undertook to Spitzbergen after seeing the fascinating paintings and photos of the arctic scenery in the Scott Polar Research Institute (http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/), next door to our Lensfield Road Chemical Labs. in Cambridge. It was a 20-day trip by boat from England (in August 1967, ) to the land of the midnight Sun, Spitzbergen (video in: http://www.cruisenorway.com/spitsbergen): (by 'Jupiter' from Newcastle at 55oN to Bergen at 60oN and back) along the Norwegian coast (by 'Nordstjernen' from Bergen to Tromso at 69oN and back from Tromso to Bergen by 'Ragnvaldjarl', from Tromso to Spitzbergen (~ 76oN - 81oN and back (by a small  postal school boat: 'Skule' which went once a month), stopping at Bjornoya (at ~ 74.5oN), and reaching upto 80.2oN (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Topographic_map_of_Svalbard.svg) in open sea above the northern tip in Spitzbergen. I visited (in Norway) the many picturesque coastal towns and the Lofotens and (in Spitzbergen) Longyear Byen (capital at ~78oN; after disembarking from the boat I saw coming in front of us, the famous polar bear hunter, Hilmar Nois!), Ny Alesund (at 79oN, Amundsen and others' base for their expedition to the North Pole), Kongs fjord, Lilliehook fjord, Virgohamn (see: http://www.sysselmannen.no/hovedEnkel.aspx?m=45275), (Andre's base at ~79.8oN, for the balloon expedition in 1896/1897 to the North Pole, with Svante Arrhenius as the hydrogarpher) and many other interesting fjords, lakes, bird cliffs and glaciers. This trip turned out to be more adventurous by my losing at Tromso, before embarking 'Skule', my baggage with all my equipment, except my handbag with my cheque book etc. and my camera, and learning later by a telegram for me received at the World's northernmost postoffice at Ny Alesund that the suitcase will be waiting for me at Tromso on my return journey!

   Last but not least I would like to add that I support vegetarianism, education of all people, human and animal rights and peaceful coexistence of all living beings in the World.

* RECENT ABRIDGED CV (Dr. R. Heyrovska) at: http://www.flogen.org/sips2015/cv.php?page=2&p=Raji_Heyrovska&e=rheyrovs@hotmail.com&pi=308

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