Dr. Rajalakshmi Heyrovska (Raji Heyrovska, Ph. D.) (Short biodata / C.V.)
(Abridged CV at the end below*) 

    Academic (post-doctoral) career: I did my doctoral work in the University of Cambridge, England and settled in Czechoslovakia (after marrying my Cambridge colleague, Dr. M. Heyrovsky) in 1968. I was a private research scientist (while raising our four children), in my postdoctoral years from 1969-1990! During this period, I published my work and participated in various international conferences. I was also a short term invited visiting scientist in 1988 in Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore. I was then employed in 1990, as a Senior Research Scientist in the J. Heyrovsky Institute of Physical Chemistry till 2006 and then in the Institute of Biophysics, both of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic. Since 2013, I am an Emeritus private research scientist working actively and publishing papers. I have published so far about 200 scientific contributions and fifteen more on women in science.

   Membership in scientific societies: I am a long time Active Member of the Electrochemical Society, USA and have served as an Executive Committee Member and Councillor of its European Local Section. I am a Member of the American Chemical Society (ACS) and also of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). In 2002 I was elected as an invited Fellow of the World Innovation Foundation (F.W.I.F.). I have been an invited team leader of Czech women physicists in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd IUPAP International conferences on women in physics in 2002 (Paris, France), 2005 (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) and 2008 (Seoul, Korea). My name has appeared in the Marquis' Who is Who. In 2006, I became a nominated Member of the International Advisory Board (IAB) of Eurasia Conferences in Chemical Sciences. 

    Main research contributions:  A major work has been the successful interpretation of the thermodynamic properties of strong electrolytes in aqueous solutions in terms of the earlier idea of partial dissociation due to Svante Arrhenius and hydration. This work replaces the many decades of the complicated theory of electrolytes based (erroneously) on complete dissociation and empirical activity coefficient corrections suggested by Lewis (since 1921). My collected work can be found in: http://vixra.org/abs/1603.0133 and is summarized in the ECS conference talk in 2016: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305082740
   In the year 1992, I invented a ‘wet-and-measure device in polarography for minute volumes of solutions’. This appeared in: Journal of Electrochemical Society, 139 (1992) L50-52 and
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/278973898. In 1993, I extended this technique and published ‘the current-spike polarography for films and surfaces’. This was published in: Langmuir, 9 (1993) 1962, and can be found in: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/244404843.
Also in 1992, I proposed the ‘rest mass based neutron numbers’ for the elements of the Periodic Table based on exact rest masses of the electron, proton and neutron. This work was accepted in: Journal of Chemical Education, 69 (1992) 742,
   Subsequently in 2004, I found that the Golden ratio found in the geometry of many spontaneous creations in the Nature, actually arises right in the core of the hydrogen atom due to electrostatic reasons. This new work shows that the energy of the hydrogen atom is actually positive (not negative as per Bohr). It has helped in the assignment of exact ionic radii from a knowledge of the interatomic distances and in the establishment of additivity of atomic and or ionic radii in bond lengths in simple as well as complex inorganic, organic and biological molecules. Also, I have found that atomic, ionic and Bohr radii (from first ionization potentials) of elements, and bond lengths and bond angles of molecules are related through the Golden ratio. Collected papers on this are in  
http://vixra.org/abs/1709.0066 and a conference talk in 2015 in power point is in: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/281270357
  Another contribution of mine is obtaining unambiguously, for the first time, the absolute potential of the standard hydrogen electrode (which was arbitrarily assumed to be zero for the last two centuries since Volta). Thereby, the absolute standard redox potentials of the elements of the Periodic Table have now been tabulated. Collected papers are in: http://www.vixra.org/abs/1603.0168
  Other fundamental new interesting results in physical chemistry, electrochemistry, solution chemistry, physics and structural chemistry/biology can be found in my full
list of publications and significant results in my webpage.

   Pre-doctoral studies, career and award: My above interests in science were built upon my studies for the B.Sc. degree (major subjects: Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics) from Maharani's College for Women, Bangalore, University of Mysore (India); (now Maharani's Science College for Women, University of Bangalore), M.Sc. degree (by research) in Physical Chemistry from the Indian Institute of Science (I.I.Sc.), Bangalore (India). I was awarded free studentships and scholarships for all my undergraduate and post graduate studies. After a few years as a Junior and then a Senior Research Assistant at the I.I.Sc., I got an award from the Association of Commonwealth Universities, which enabled me to get my Ph.D. degree (by research) in Physical Chemistry from the University of Cambridge, UK.
  My thesis for the Ph.D. degree was on the thermogravitational separation in solutions of electrolytes  (now open access at: https://www.repository.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/270413 ; https://doi.org/10.17863/CAM.17287).  It is this topic which provoked me to scrutinize the theory of strong electrolytes. I was dissatisfied with the complicated theory like several others and I eventually came to the conclusion that the existing idea of complete dissociation had to be abandoned in favor of the earlier idea of partial dissociation due to ARRHENIUS as stated in a paragraph above. 

   Recognitions & honors: My above work on the thermodynamics of aqueous strong electrolytes was recoginzed by the award of an Invitation Plenary Lecturership by the Organizing Committee of the "Symposium Svante Arrhenius" in Uppsala, in November 2003, commemorating the Centenary of the award of the Nobel Prize to Arrhenius. The full text of this Lecture is at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320021014, and with additional data in Electroanalysis, 2006.  Also, I was honored in my recent talk in the ECS conference in 2016 in San Diego, by the presence of the grandson (Prof. Gustaf Arrhenius) and great grandson (Dr. Thomas Arrhenius) of Svante Arrhenius. Full text in ppt is at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/305082740.
   In 2011, it was an honor to be invited by the Women Chemists Committee of the ACS for a Symposium featuring seven successful women scientists (http://www.chemistry2011.org/participate/activities/show?id=153) on the occasion of IYC 2011 celebration by the ACS in 2011. The full text of my talk with audio (with 4 of my notable scientific contributions is in the ACS website at: http://www.softconference.com/ACSchem/player.asp?PVQ=HGFE&fVQ=FIDDGM&hVQ.
   Another great honor in 2014, was to give a Keyrnote talk entitled "The Golden ratio in atomic architecture" in the Shechtman International Sumposium in Cancun: http://www.flogen.org/ShechtmanSymposium/plenary_abst.php?page=2&p=Raji_Heyrovska&e=rheyrovs@hotmail.com&pi=124.
  I had the great pleasure to be an invited team leader of Czech Women Physicists in the 1st, 2nd and 3rd IUPAP International conferences on Women in Physics in 2002 (Paris, France), 2005 (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil) and 2008 (Seoul, Korea).

    Personal feelings: I consider myself very fortunate to be a scientist and I have always enjoyed both experimental and theoretical research. I feel that physico-chemical phenomena follow simple mathematical rules and therefore only as much mathematics must be used as to bring out the science governing the phenomena (- Occam's rule!). I would like also to add that if one has the talent to grasp the principles of science and mathematics, it will be a pity not to cultivate this unique gift to explore the many dark corridors in science and understand the workings of Nature. In this venture one has to take both failure and success with equal spirit, since the former contributes by showing the path to avoid. Also, I would like to point out the hurdles which one has to conquer in getting new and original ideas published. Faraday’s motto: ‘Work, finish, publish’ is currently best observed by the preprint servers.  

   Acknowledgement: For all what I have done so far, I am grateful to the many in India (especially to the dedicated scientist, my late grandfather Prof. P. R. Ayyar, Research Professor of Chemistry, I.I.Sc., Bangalore and to his cousin, Sir C.V. Raman, for his brilliant lectures). Also grateful to many scientists in Cambridge (UK) and in other places in the world which I have visited, who enabled me to cultivate the desire and enjoyment of working in Science. I am equally obliged to some scientists in Czech Republic for giving me the moral support. Turning to my family, I am very fortunate to have had their loving encouragement
   My special gratitude is also due to the many scientists in the world who have supported, appreciated and criticized my ideas during my several journeys abroad to many countries (USA, Canada, UK, Europe, Japan and Asia) for lectures at conferences, and seminars and talks at other Institutions: (IISC (Bangalore, India), Univ. of Pisa (Italy), Univ of Utrecht (Netherlands), Univ. of Pierre & Marie Curie (Paris), Johns Hopkins Univ., UMBC, Towson Univ, and Stevenson Univ. (all in Baltimore), NIST (Gaithersberg), MIT and Harvard Univ. (Cambridge, MA), Tufts Univ (Medford, MA), Univ. of Waterloo (Waterloo, Canada), Chemical Heritage Foundation (Philadelphia), Sofia Univ. and Univ of Kyoto (Japan), Univs.of Regensburg, Aachen and Dresden, Hahn Meittner Inst., Berlin (all in Germany), Univ. of Uppsala (Sweden), and a few others.
  Travels: I have enjoyed traveling and exploring many countries from Tokyo (130.7 E) to Pearl Harbor (157.8 W) and Spitzbergen (80.02 N) to Rio deJaneiro (22.9 S). Notably exotic amongst them was a trip which I undertook to Spitzbergen after seeing the fascinating paintings and photos of the arctic scenery in the Scott Polar Research Institute (http://www.spri.cam.ac.uk/), next door to our Lensfield Road Chemical Labs. in Cambridge. It was a 20-day trip by boat from England (in August 1967, ) to the land of the midnight Sun, Spitzbergen: (by 'Jupiter' from Newcastle at 55oN to Bergen at 60oN and back) along the Norwegian coast (by 'Nordstjernen' from Bergen to Tromso at 69oN and back from Tromso to Bergen by 'Ragnvaldjarl', from Tromso to Spitzbergen (~ 76oN - 81oN and back (by a small  postal school boat: 'Skule' which went once a month), stopping at Bjornoya (at ~ 74.5oN), and reaching upto 80.2oN (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Topographic_map_of_Svalbard.svg) in open sea above the northern tip in Spitzbergen. I visited (in Norway) the many picturesque coastal towns and the Lofotens and (in Spitzbergen) Longyear Byen (capital at ~78oN; after disembarking from the boat I saw coming in front of us, the famous polar bear hunter, Hilmar Nois!), Ny Alesund (at 79oN, Amundsen and others' base for their expedition to the North Pole), Kongs fjord, Lilliehook fjord, Virgohamn, (Andre's base at ~79.8oN, for the balloon expedition in 1896/1897 to the North Pole, with Svante Arrhenius as the hydrogarpher) and many other interesting fjords, lakes, bird cliffs and glaciers. This trip turned out to be more adventurous by my losing at Tromso, before embarking 'Skule', my baggage with all my equipment, except my handbag with my cheque book etc. and my camera, and learning later by a telegram for me received at the World's northernmost postoffice at Ny Alesund that the suitcase will be waiting for me at Tromso on my return journey!

   Last but not least I would like to add that I support vegetarianism, veganism, education of all people including women, human and animal rights and peaceful & friendly coexistence of all living beings in the World.

* AN ABRIDGED CV (Dr. R. Heyrovska) is at: http://www.flogen.org/sips2015/cv.php?page=2&p=Raji_Heyrovska&e=rheyrovs@hotmail.com&pi=308

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